Specification (Food Festival)

Specification

Unit 3: Artwork and Imaging Level 2

Guided Learning Hours: 90


 

Introduction

 
Images of one sort or another are all around us, often influencing what we do and how we think. They are used to communicate messages in many different contexts including advertising, music, fashion, interior design, computer games and architecture. We see them everywhere – as we work or study, out shopping or on holiday.
 
This unit aims to give you the skills to use the tools and techniques provided by artwork and imaging software to design and create effective graphic products for specified purposes and audiences. You will investigate a range of graphic products to find out how images are used to convey a particular message. You will discover that you like some of these products more than others and you will need to consider why this is the case.
 
Once you have a good understanding of the possibilities offered by artwork and imaging, you will learn how to produce images that communicate effectively onscreen and in print and how to combine them with other components to produce graphic products. You will need to consider the medium, purpose and audience as well as file format and size.
 
You will demonstrate your ability to create effective images and graphic products through your work on a major project set by Pearson. This will include exhibiting your work and supporting evidence in an eportfolio. Recommended prior learning It is recommended that you complete the learning for Unit 1: Developing Web Products before starting this unit.

 

What you need to learn

 
Investigating artwork and images

Images are an important part of how we communicate with each other. You will need to learn how artwork and images are used in a variety of contexts and graphic products, such as:

  • illustrations in books, magazines, newspapers and posters
  • symbols and signs in public places
  • buttons and icons on websites and other user interfaces
  • websites, presentations and animations
  • posters, leaflets and calendars
  • labels and packaging including the net and all surface graphics
  • plans, diagrams and models.

You need to learn how to evaluate the effectiveness of these images by considering factors such as:

  • audience and purpose
  • composition
  • use of colour
  • impact/visual effect
  • size and position
  • the nature of the message, for example
    • obvious or subtle
    • persuasive
    • informative.
 
Designing artwork and images

Like any other type of project, production of successful artwork and imaging needs careful planning so that the final products meet their intended objectives.

You should read the entire project brief first.

There are a number of key questions you need to ask, including:

  • What do I have to produce?
  • What is it for?
  • Who is the intended audience?
  • What graphic elements are required?
  • How will the elements be combined:
    • layout
    • balance and proportions
    • emphasis
    • consistency?
  • What resources are needed?
  • Is there a technical specification that I must meet?
  • When do I have to have it finished?
  • How will the success of the project be judged?
  • Who will review my work and when?

You need to learn about how to generate and select ideas to meet the objectives:

  • how to generate ideas, e.g. looking at other people’s products, brainstorming ideas
  • weighing up the pros and cons of different alternatives
  • narrowing down the possibilities and choosing one.

You will need to learn where to get ideas for your designs and about the wide range of stimulus materials that are available to you such as:

  • photographs or parts of photographs taken by you or from secondary sources such as the internet
  • sketches, drawings or paintings of people, places, or objects
  • diagrams, maps, plans
  • background images or textures
  • text in a particular typeface or font
  • interesting colours and colour combinations, patterns or effects you would like to re-create.

To create the most effective artwork and images you will need to experiment with a range of design ideas so that you can see what works and what does not. You may finally decide not to use a particular technique but this will be only after you have tried it out to see if it does what you need it to do, or if you like the effect it produces.

You need to learn how to make use of feedback from others on your initial designs to ensure that your final products meet the needs of the target audience.

 
Image types

You will work with two different image types: vector and bitmap (also sometimes called raster). You need to know how these differ from one another, the advantages and limitations of each and which purposes each is most suitable for.

You will learn that vector images:

  • are made up of objects that can be edited and filled with colour
  • are used for more precise images, e.g. maps or technical drawings, logos, clipart, lettering
  • can be scaled up or down without losing any details
  • are not used to create photographic images (although bitmap images can be included in vector art)
  • generally require less storage space than bitmap images.

You will also learn that bitmap images:

  • are made up of individual pixels that can be set to one colour
  • are used for photographs or images with continuous colours
  • will lose detail if they are scaled up or down to excess
  • generally require considerably more storage space than vector images.
 
Developing artwork and images

You will need to experiment with a variety of tools and techniques for creating and editing vector and bitmap images in order to test out ideas.

You need to learn about the various options available:

  • trying out particular tools to see how they can be used in your images
  • exploring alternative ways of achieving the same effect
  • using the work of another designer, illustrator or artist as a stimulus
  • experimenting with different ways of conveying messages
  • using combinations of vector and bitmap images.

While you are experimenting with the software to produce design ideas you will need to remember the objectives of your project and evaluate what makes a good design solution. You may find it helpful to use paper and pencil to sketch out your ideas.

You will need to check and refine your work to make sure that your final images are fit for purpose.

You will save your final images and the designs on which they are based in an eportfolio, so that the development of your images from initial ideas through to final product can be seen.

 
Use drawing tools

You will learn how to:

  • create and edit objects
  • path and point
  • stroke and fill
    • paint the stroke separately from the fill
    • alter the thickness of the stroke
    • alter the properties of the fill, such as pattern or gradient
  • edit and arrange vector images
    • cut, copy and paste
    • duplicate or clone objects
    • crop, trim and resize
    • cut and join lines or shapes
    • combine and break apart objects
    • align and order objects
    • group/ungroup
  • move and order objects
  • use layers in vector images
  • apply effects to selected areas
  • trace objects
  • insert, modify and transform text using vector tools
  • combine basic shapes and freehand drawing
  • insert, create and add text
    • insert, format and edit
    • fit text to path
    • apply filters and special effects such as shadows
  • save vector images
    • native formats that only the software can read
    • common file formats
    • formats for print and web and/or screen display.
 
Use image editing tools

You will learn how to:

  • create bitmap images or elements
  • scan images or use other capture devices such as digital microscopes
  • download pictures from a digital camera
  • draw/paint images
  • edit bitmap images
    • cut and move bitmap elements
    • crop bitmap elements
    • select parts of bitmap images
    • apply special effects and filters to bitmap images
    • use layers in bitmap images
    • combine images and parts of images
    • apply an effect or change to a selected area
  • use text in bitmap images
  • adjust image and canvas size
  • adjust colour in bitmap images
    • convert images to grayscale or BW
    • colour balance (HSB)
    • understand where and how to use levels and curves
    • using and customising colour palettes
  • make basic corrections and adjustments to colour
  • save bitmap images
    • native formats that only the software used to make them can read
    • common file formats
    • formats for print and web and/or screen display
  • combine bitmap images and parts of graphics in a composite image.
 
Preparing images for screen

In preparing images for screen or web publication you will need to consider:

  •  the quality of the image
    • the resolution of the image (the number and size of the pixels)
    • the colours used
  • the file format
    • compression and compressibility
    • converting files to different formats
    • the size of the file
    • bandwidth (download speed)
    • browsers and platforms.

There are several different colour systems that can be used to create images. You will learn about:

  • different colour systems (RGB, CMYK, grayscale, BW)
  • colours and fonts that are suitable for the web.

You will learn how different properties of monitors affect image size and quality, including:

  • maximum resolution
  • viewable area – aspect ratio, screen size
  • refresh rate for CRT.
 
Preparing images for print

When preparing images for use onscreen you have the advantage of being able to see what they will look like. What you see is what you get (WYSIWYG)! However, if your image is destined for another medium, such as paper, you will need to make sure that it will look how you want it to. There are a number of factors that you need to learn about, including:

  • type of printer, number of colours, resolution
  • medium on which it is to be printed, e.g. paper, acetate, fabric
  • paper size
  • layout and orientation
  • image size
  • distance between the image and the person viewing it.

You will learn how to make sure that your printed image looks how you want it to by:

  • setting an appropriate resolution and image size
  • selecting an appropriate file type .
 
Product review

You need to learn how to undertake a thorough review of your products once they are completed. You should evaluate:

  • how well they meet user requirements
  • their fitness for purpose.

You should:

  • consider feedback from end reviewers
  • make valid suggestions for further improvement of the final products.

Your review could be any combination of:

  • a written evaluation
  • a verbal evaluation recorded in an appropriate way
  • a presentation.
 
Exhibit work in an eportfolio

You need to learn about what an eportfolio is and how it is used to create an interactive showcase for your achievements in a way that is self explanatory and easy to use. You will need to learn how about how to construct an eportfolio, making decisions about:

  • content
    • home page
    • context pages with commentaries
    • graphic products
    • supporting evidence
  • organisation
    • structure
    • links
    • user interface
  • packaging
    • storage medium
    • file formats, compression and compatibility
  • accessibility.

You must learn which file formats are suitable for your images and documents so that people can view or read them even if they do not have the same software as you. You must test your eportfolio to ensure that it functions properly. You must check that:

  • the content is correct and complete
  • the file sizes are appropriate for download
  • every link goes where it should with no dead ends
  • the eportfolio displays and works correctly with commonly used browsers
  • other people can use the eportfolio without help.

You should get other people to test your eportfolio and give you feedback. You will need to decide whether or not to make modifications in the light of the comments you receive.

 
Standard ways of working

You will be expected to use ICT efficiently and safely, including:

  • file management
    • save work regularly
    • use sensible filenames
    • set up directory/folder structures to organise files
    • make regular backups and versions to show progress
    • choose appropriate file formats
    • convert files to appropriate formats
    • have an awareness of viruses
  • quality assurance
    • use tools such as spell and grammar check and print preview
    • proofread
    • seek views of others
    • authenticate work
    • test components
  • work safely
    • select and adjust system settings
    • take regular breaks
    • handle and store media correctly
    • use the internet in a responsible and safe way.


 

How your work will be assessed.

 
This unit takes a holistic approach to the assessment of knowledge, understanding and skills. You will demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of the content through how well you perform the tasks in the project brief given to you. This project brief will require you to produce images and artwork for a specified purpose and audience. It should take you approximately 30 hours to complete. You will be expected to:
 
(a) Design and develop graphic products (9 marks)
 
(b) Develop scaleable images and artwork (5 marks)
 
(c) Develop bitmap images and artwork (7 marks)
 
(d) Exhibit work in an eportfolio (7 marks)
 
(e) Review the products (5 marks).
 

Mark descriptions are written in bands. In each band, the description relates to the top of the band.

Whenever assessments are made, the mark descriptions given should be used to judge the mark which best fits the student’s performance. Students should be placed in a band on a ‘best fit’ basis, making allowance for balancing the strengths and weaknesses in the work presented.

The Moderator’s Toolkit stipulates the acceptable file formats for content. Work must be submitted in formats that will be accessible by the moderator. Work that cannot be accessed by the moderator (for example, because files are corrupted, infected by viruses or presented in formats that are not acceptable) cannot be moderated.

A recommended maximum size for the eportfolio is published in each SPB. This is to encourage students to produce manageable eportfolios with optimised download times. However, there is no penalty for exceeding the recommended size.

 
Design and develop graphic products (maximum 9 marks)
Mark Mark Description
0 marks
No rewardable content.
1–3 marks
The student has produced a set of products, each of which meets most requirements of the project brief and incorporates combinations of elements, some of which are appropriate for audience and purpose. They have made comments on their design decisions.
4–6 marks
The student has produced a set of products, each of which meets all requirements of the project brief and incorporates combinations of elements, all of which are appropriate for audience and purpose. They have made detailed comments on their design decisions.
7–9 marks
The student has produced a set of products, each of which meets all requirements of the project brief and incorporates combinations of elements that are effective and well matched to the audience and purpose. They have justified their design decisions.
 
Develop scaleable drawings and artwork (maximum 5 marks)
Mark Mark Description
0 marks
No rewardable content.
1–3 marks
The student has used drawing tools to develop a variety of scaleable graphic elements, most of which are suitable for the intended purpose. They have provided brief comments on their use of drawing tools to develop some of the elements.
4–5 marks
The student has used drawing tools to develop a variety of scaleable graphic elements, all of which are suitable for the intended purpose. They have described clearly their use of drawing tools to develop most of the elements.
 
Develop bitmap images and artwork (maximum 7 marks)
Mark Mark Description
0 marks
No rewardable content.
1–3 marks
The student has used drawing tools to develop a variety of scaleable graphic elements, most of which are suitable for the intended purpose. They have provided brief comments on their use of drawing tools to develop some of the elements.
4–5 marks
The student has used drawing tools to develop a variety of scaleable graphic elements, all of which are suitable for the intended purpose. They have described clearly their use of drawing tools to develop most of the elements.
 
Exhibit work in an eportfolio (maximum 7 marks)
Mark Mark Description
0 marks
No rewardable content.
1–3 marks
The student has produced an eportfolio with a basic user interface that includes graphic elements and provides access to most of the student’s evidence. Most elements are appropriate for the audience and purpose. There are brief comments that introduce the content of the eportfolio.
4–5 marks
The student has produced an eportfolio with a suitable user interface that includes graphic elements and provides access to all of the student’s evidence. All elements are appropriate for the audience and purpose. There are detailed comments that introduce the content of the eportfolio
6–7 marks
The student has produced an eportfolio with an intuitive user interface that includes graphic elements and facilitates access to all of the student’s evidence. All elements are effective and well-matched to the audience and purpose. There are clear explanations that introduce the content of the eportfolio.

 

 
Review the products (maximum 5 marks)
Mark Mark Description
0 marks
No rewardable content.
1–3 marks
The student has made evaluative comments about the final products, most of which are realistic and has included feedback from reviewers.
4–5 marks
The student has produced realistic evaluation of each of the final products, including their response to feedback from reviewers.


 

Delivering the Unit

 
There are real opportunities here to work collaboratively with colleagues teaching art and design or graphic products. However, it is also perfectly possible for students to be taught this unit in discrete lessons. What is important is that whoever teaches this unit has a good grasp of graphics technical concepts such as file size, image size, colour models etc.
 
Students will almost certainly already have some experience of developing images by hand and will be familiar with the design process. They will probably have experimented with different tools to produce artwork and will know something about the work of other artists.
 
Students should be encouraged to evaluate a variety of images in terms of how well they serve the purpose for which they are intended. It may be useful to use group work here. Asking a group of students to evaluate the success of a graphic and present ideas to the wider group will be helpful in exploring a range of ideas and sources.
 
Students must work with images they have created themselves from primary sources and will need to gain experience in methods of image capture. It is also vital that they are given access to a range of secondary sources, including photographs, image libraries, maps, etc. While collecting these images it is important that students are made aware of the correct means of storing the image: using image databases such as Adobe Album or Picasa and choosing the correct file extension, for instance. It is also crucial that students are constantly reminded of the laws of copyright and the need to reference all sources. Providing students with a model of an accurate bibliography may be useful. Students must also be continually warned of the dangers of plagiarism when using and exploring the resources of others.
 
It is important that students can access a range of graphic software, including vector-based and bitmap. They should be aware of the most suitable uses for each graphic type. It may be useful to ask students to produce the same graphic using both types, to examine the suitability of each type for a particular purpose. Students need to be given opportunities to explore the tools and techniques of the software available to them.
 
The developmental process of producing artwork and images is crucial in ensuring its success. It would be useful for students to be introduced to a suitable design methodology. This might include evaluation of the work of others, experimentation with different tools, and detailed explanation of the message that needs to be conveyed. This approach will ensure that students accurately store the stages in the development of their design. Keeping a record of all their experiments is important for the final eportfolio. Students should be encouraged to allow others to evaluate their work, to help in its development. It is important that the correct atmosphere is created for the exchange of such views. Suggesting that students give permission to others to closely examine their work is helpful.
 
It is important that students appreciate the need to prepare the graphics they produce for the intended medium, whether this is digital or print.
 
In preparing artwork and images for the screen, students need to be aware of such things as resolution, colour, file format and size, compatibility etc and how these may impede the ability of the audience to view the graphic. It may be useful to ask students to explore a series of poorly constructed websites. This way they will be introduced to the issues of download speed and use of colour and how these can hinder a project’s success.


 

Links

 
As the work on the unit progresses, the website will collate useful links that students can use to deveolop and improve their ideas and products.
 


 

Resources

 
Books

Chasemore R – Basic Paint Shop Pro 8 (Payne-Gallway Publishers, 2004) ISBN: 9781904467366

Tilley P and Gillies M – Edexcel DiDA: Graphics (Longman, 2005) ISBN: 9781846901171

 

 

 

 


GETTING ORGANISED

Folders

You need to ensure you save all the work you do in the correct folders. This is not optional; if you do not do this then your work will not be looked at by an examiner.

Create a folder called DA204SPB that contains these two subfolders:

  • PRODUCTS – all final products must be saved here
  • EVIDENCE – all other evidence must be saved here.

Products are shown with this symbol Product and other evidence is shown with this symbol Evidence .

This is the order in which you will complete the task of making the game. You can see that making the game is actually a very small part of the process. You should also see how interconnected each of the parts and documents are.

Assets table

You must keep careful records of all the sources you use to gather assets, both primary and secondary; primary assets are those that you make yourself.

You should describe:

  • each asset
  • how and where it is used in the game
  • how and why you created the primary assets
  • how and why you edited any secondary assets
  • details of the permission required for its use.

Evidence Create an assets table. Ensure that you keep it 'up-to-date' throughout the project.

I cannot give you a pre-prepared document but the five headings above (I would add an asset ID for each asset and the source - the source is NEVER Google itself so if the source URL has Google in it you are making a mistake which you must correct) give you a pretty big hint.

Copyright

You must comply with copyright.

Game testers

You must choose suitable testers who will give you useful feedback on your game designs and prototype.

Game reviewers

You will also need meaningful feedback from reviewers on your final game.

GAME OUTLINE

You must produce some ideas for your game.

Read all the information for creating the game and make sure you understand what you need to do.

Evidence Complete a game overview that outlines:

  • Background: Set the game in some sort of context
  • Target audience: Describe the target audience; how will the game be suitable for the target audience?
  • Purpose/Objective: What does the player have to do to play the game?
  • Tutorial: What will happen in the tutorial level?
  • Characters: Does your game include characters, what sort, how might you draw them

Discuss your game overview with your teacher and get their approval before you continue.

Here is part of an example.


Assessment information for internally assessed units

Controls for task taking

The Summative Projects are subject to controls that define the conditions under which they are taken.

Supervision and authentication of student work

Unless specifically stated, students are able to work on the SPB only in a lesson, under the supervision of a teacher. This means that there must be adequate supervision to ensure that work can be authenticated. The Teacher Support Notes will also specify any work that may be completed without supervision outside of the classroom, for example background research and asset gathering. All other work, including any manipulation or development of this material must be done under supervision in the classroom. Any material brought back into the classroom must be checked by the teacher to ensure that it can be authenticated as the student’s own work. At the end of the lesson, all of the student’s materials, paper-based and electronic, must be collected in, stored securely and handed back at the beginning of the next session.

The role of the test buddy

Each student will work with a test buddy to give and receive feedback on their product designs, prototype products and final product. Students must be made aware of what is expected of a test buddy: they can comment on the ‘what’ (what they think is good and what they think could be improved), but they could not feedback on the ‘how’ (eg how to make changes or specific solutions to any problems).

Feedback and collaboration at each stage of the project

The controlled assessment task for each unit can be divided into three broad stages. The level of feedback and collaboration allowed varies between stages, as outlined below.

Proposal / Game overview

Students must work individually to come up with their own proposal/game overview. The teacher may provide feedback on the planned approach, such as highlighting strengths, weaknesses and possible problems with the planned product(s) and approach, but teachers must not suggest, or direct students towards, specific solutions. Students may receive feedback on the proposal/game overview from their test buddy (see Role of the Test Buddy above) and use this to modify their proposal/game overview before seeking approval from the teacher.

Design, building and development

Students must work individually to design, build and develop their products. The teacher may provide feedback at the beginning of this stage on students’ designs, such as highlighting strengths, weaknesses and problems with the planned designs, but teachers must not suggest, or direct students towards, specific solutions.

The teacher must not provide feedback on their final products, but can suggest general questions for students to consider (which will be useful in the Review), eg ‘how do you think x looks?’, ‘how do you think x could be improved?’ Students may receive feedback from their test buddy (see Role of the Test Buddy above) on the designs and building and incorporate this into their final products.

Review

Students must work individually to complete the review. Before starting their review, the students must seek feedback from their test buddy on the final product (see Role of the Test Buddy above), which will be incorporated into the final review. No other feedback from any source is allowed.

Resources

The same range of resources must be made available to all students within a centre. These should include:

  • the internet
  • relevant software programs
  • relevant general guidance documents (electronic or paper), for example software user manuals.

Students must not be provided with:

  • any guidance or exemplars that are specific to the project being undertaken (eg examples of work that has been created on the same SPB)
  • writing frames

Time

Centres must allow 10 hours for Unit 1 and 5 and 30 hours for Unit 2, 3 and 4 for students to complete their Summative Project.

Authentication

All students must sign the authentication statement that is included in the Assessor Record Sheet (see Annexe C). Statements relating to work not sampled should be held securely by the centre. Those which relate to sampled students must be included with the work sent to the moderator. Any student unable to provide an authentication statement will receive zero credit for the component. Where credit has been awarded by a centre-assessor to sampled work without an accompanying authentication statement, the moderator will inform Edexcel and the mark will be adjusted to zero.

Submission of work to the teacher

Students must present their work for Units 2 and 3 in an eportfolio. They will need to understand the difference between document creation and document publication and to distinguish between file formats appropriate for document creation and file formats appropriate for viewing. Students will be expected to present eportfolio content in a format appropriate for viewing at a resolution of 1024 x 768 pixels. The eportfolio must be constructed so that its contents can be accessed using the Moderator’s Toolkit, details of which can be found on the Edexcel website. Information about how to present work for Unit 4 will be available on the Edexcel website in the support notes. Recommended file size limits are published in each SPB. Candidates who exceed this recommended limit will not be penalised. However, it should be noted that working within these guidelines will allow candidates to meet all requirements of the brief.

Marking, standardisation and moderation

The Summative Project is marked by centre staff using the detailed mark descriptions provided for each unit. Where marking for this specification has been carried out by more than one teacher in a centre, there must be a process of internal standardisation carried out to ensure that there is a consistent application of the criteria laid down in the marking grids, across all the units. Marks awarded by the centre will be subject to external moderation by Edexcel.

This is to ensure consistency with national standards. Following the submission of marks, Edexcel will notify centres of the students whose eportfolios have been selected for moderation. Work must be submitted in an approved digital format. If the moderation indicates centre assessment does not reflect national standards an adjustment will be made to students’ final marks to compensate for this.

Security and backups

It is the responsibility of the centre to keep secure the work that students have submitted for assessment. Centres are strongly advised to utilise firewall protection and virus checking software and to employ an effective backup strategy, so that an up-to-date archive of students’ evidence is maintained. Centres are advised to archive completed, assessed work so as to free up work space for work in progress.

Language of assessment

Assessment of these units will be available in English. All student work must be in English.

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