May 2018 Examination: Unit R012/01: Understanding tools, techniques, methods and processes for technological solutions

Never in an examination give the answer "It's quicker" or "It's faster" or "It's more efficient". You must say why. Such answers will never, ever get a mark.

If you are to do yourself justice then make sure that the examiner can read what you have written. If your hand writing is "scruffy" then take your time and try to be a little neater; print if necessary. Your paper will be scanned and a number of papers sent to the examiner to be marked in a set period of time; if it cannot be read easily the examiner will not bother to read it and give your answer zero.


This is the May 2018 examination.

Answer all of the questions.

1. You are working on a project and need to set milestones. In which phase of the project life cycle would this task be carried out?

Initiation (1) or planning (1).

There are four phases of the project life cycle according to the board; initiation, planning, execution and evaluation

2. Fig. 1 below shows part of a Gantt chart.

What does Column A represent?

Activities (1) or tasks (1)

Notes to examiners; Mark the first answer given.

I would also accept "Work" as the first draft of a Gantt chart is a WBS (Work Breakdown Schedule)

3. Identify one software type that could be used to create a visualisation diagram.

 (desktop) publishing/DTP (1).
 presentation software (1).
 art packages (1).
 word processing (1).

Accept any reasonable software with drawing tools to create an image to show what it is going to look like. Accept trade names. Thus "Balsamiq visualisation software" would be fine, "Balsamiq" on its own might not be.

4 A food manufacturer is using a consumer panel to collect feedback on its new range of healthy snacks. Give two advantages of using a consumer panel to collect this feedback.

 better quality feedback/more detailed feedback (1).
 more accurate/more timeous (1).
 opinions given by people who have used the product/feedback is more informed (1).
 longer interviews are possible (1).
 cross section of consumers invited/different ages of consumers (1).
 better engagement as have volunteered (1).
 allows facial reactions to be seen (1).

Numbers on the answer area are for reference only. Candidate may have written both answers in the first space.
Mark first two answers.
This question asks candidates to identify, and not to describe or explain. Therefore, mark the answer given, even if explanation or discussion is not totally correct.
Accept answers relating to the use of a consumer panel to collect feedback on the new healthy snack range.
DO NOT accept “easy to collect feedback” or similar
DO NOT accept “process is quicker” or similar. However, ‘feedback can be provided directly’ is acceptable
DO NOT accept ‘data is accurate'.

5 Pharming is one type of threat that exists when collecting data online. What is meant by the term pharming?

 to steal data/personal information (1) through use of a fake website (1).
 to redirect people from a legitimate website (1) to a fake website (1) to steal data (1).
 to redirect web users (1) to a fake website/without their knowledge (1).

Answer must show an awareness of the intention to steal data or that the second website is false.

6 You are releasing a deliverable product to a client. During which phase of the project life cycle does this task take place?

evaluation (1).

7 A retailer shares information about new products with its store managers using Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). Describe one advantage to the retailer of using VoIP to share this information.

 you can hear their voice (1) to understand what the product is (1).
 you can show the product (1) with a camera (1).
 there is an opportunity for two-way dialogue (1) to increase understanding (1).
 can be used using a wide range of mobile devices(1), meaning it is a flexible method (1).
 less hardware in the building (1) as use same cabling (etc.) for cable and voice (1).
 allows for group calls (1) that allow sharing information with more than one store manager at a time/making communication more efficient (1).
 there is no marginal/extra cost (1) if paying for data at a flat fee (1).

DO NOT accept “Easier” or “Faster” or “Easier to set up”.
DO NOT accept “Cheaper”.

You could have used the Internet to find out what VoIP was, 106,000,000 websites.

A project team has been set up to organise the installation of a cashless payment system in the school canteen over the summer holiday. The new payment system must be ready for the first day of term. The school has a total budget of £20 000 to set up the new system. There will be two checkouts, each with a barcode scanner. A fingerprint reader will be used to identify each student at the checkouts. When a student wants to buy a meal, they will take the items to the checkout, sign in with their fingerprint and scan the food item barcodes.

The total cost will be calculated and displayed on a touch screen. The student will then confirm the purchase by touching the OK button. The student can also cancel their purchase if the meal costs too much. The system will generate a total bill at the end of each week. This is sent to each student’s home by email.

8 (a) Identify one input into the initiation phase for this project.

 (user/school/client) requirements (1).
 (user/school) constraints/boundaries (1).
 business case (1).
 resources (1) (accept examples).

Accept “collection of ideas for what user wants”.
Accept use of specific terms/examples. Project goals is an input to the project and goes in initiation.

(b) Identify one output from the planning phase for this project.

 project plan (1).
 test plan (1).
 constraints list (1).
 phase review (1).

Project scope is created as part of project planning and is an output of the planning phase.

9 The project manager considers legislative implications during the initiation and planning phases. Describe one legal implication that must be considered for this project.

 as personal data is being used (1) the data must be protected (1).
 personal data must be protected (1) which is a requirement (1).
 the school must make sure personal data is up to date (1), to meet the legal requirements (1).
 must comply with the legal requirements (1) as involves personal data (1).

First and second parts of these answers can be mixed and matched.
Mark first answer.
Other aspects of the DPA are applicable.
Answer must be based on the scenario. Where answer is clearly not based on scenario, no marks available.
Data Protection Act on its own would be sufficient for one mark.

10 The team will follow the project life cycle to complete this project. Discuss the advantages to the school of the project being completed using the project life cycle.

 Financial resources can be allocated in advance, so that the school can plan spending and keep within its budget.
 Phase reviews take place, meaning that the school will be able to see the progress being made and to see that the project is on schedule, this will increase the confidence that the school has that the cashless payment system will be delivered on time.
 The feasibility report produced by the project team will allow the school to abandon/postpone the project after the initiation phase, if it will not be possible to deliver the cashless payment system within the time/financial constraints.
 The project team will have created agreed project and test plans, so the school will know what the delivered cashless payment system will be like.
 A recognised series of steps to help organise the project.

Mark Band 3: (6-8 marks)
Candidate explains the advantages to the school of following the project life cycle when developing the cashless payment system. Answer will be given in context.
At the bottom of the mark band more than one advantage has been explained, each in reasonable depth.
Mark Band 2: (3-5 marks)
Candidate describes the advantages to the school of following the project life cycle when developing the cashless payment system. Answer may not be given in context.
At the top of the mark band more than one advantage has been described.
At the bottom of the mark band weak description of one advantage.
Mark Band 1: (1-2 marks)
Candidate identifies generic points in relation to the project life cycle.
At the top of the mark band more than one advantage identified.
At the bottom of the mark band any point made.
0 marks
No answer given or answer not worthy of credit.

 

11 (a) Identify two constraints for this project.

 time (1).
 resources (1).
 security (1).
 risk management (1).
 budget/money/finances (1).
 staff expertise (1).
 legislation (1).

Two marks for two suitable constraints. Mark first answer given.

(b) For one of the constraints you chose in part (a), describe one step that could be taken to mitigate this.

Chosen constraint

Description

Time

 tasks schedule can be carefully planned/create gantt (or equivalent) chart/follow project lifecycle (1), so lower risk of delays/deliver on time (1).
 time contingency can be built in to the project (1) so delivery of system to school will not be delayed (1).

Resources

 a cost contingency can be built in to the project (1) to prevent overspend (1).
 costs used in planning phase must be accurate (1) to stay within the budget (1).

Security

 purchase of anti-virus software is included in the project plan (1) to reduce risk of security breach (1).
 project team consider cyber-security measures (1) in the feasibility study (1).

Risk management:

 the impact of each risk is considered (1) to prioritise the important ones (1).
 project team consider the probability of each risk (1) to reduce the chance of problems (1).

Budget:

 check all spending is required (1) so that no money is wasted (1).
 reduce waste (1) so that best use is made of all resources (1).

Any constraint given must be reviewed on its own merits in relation to the description. If valid award marks.
DO NOT award answers that suggest that checking that the constraint exists is a method of mitigation (e.g. check that you have enough resources before the project starts).

An athletics club, Progress Harriers, organises a monthly competition. The competition includes a variety of sporting events. The results of the competition are posted on the club website and sent to all competitors as an email attachment.

Progress Harriers uses a database to store and process data such as event results, club event records and the contact details of each competitor. The database is stored on a laptop. The database is protected by a password.

At the start of each monthly competition, the laptop is used by club officials to record the names of the competitors in a database table. During each competition, a desk is set up at the side of the events field where the competition is being held. The results of each sporting event are brought by club officials to the desk. This data on the position and time for each competitor is input into the database using the laptop.


12 Progress Harriers is concerned about the use of social engineering by cyber-criminals.

(a) What type of social engineering could take place during a competition?

 shoulder surfing (1).
 baiting (1).

(b) Explain one way Progress Harriers could mitigate against the threats from social engineering.

Up to three marks for valid explanation.
Identification of method (1) and explanation of how the method solves the problem (2).
e.g.
 train all race officials on the types of social engineering (1), so that they are better able to identify social engineering threats (1) and know how to take counter measures (1).
 make members of Progress Harriers aware of the possible consequences to the club of a social engineering threat (1), they will be more motivated to be vigilant (1) reducing the chance of them divulging confidential information (1).
 encourage members to report any email that might pose a threat (1), enabling the club to take action (1) by informing all other members (1).
 physical screens/nobody else in the room (1) physically keeps others away from the data (1) so they cannot see it to steal it (1).

Accept answers relating to any form of social engineering.
DO NOT award “hire a white hat hacker” or equivalent.
Answer must be about stopping social engineering not managing the impacts of social engineering.

13 (a) Identify one physical prevention measure and two logical prevention measures that Progress Harriers can take to protect its data.

Physical

Logical 1

Logical 2

Physical prevention measures – MAX one.
e.g.
 biometric access device (1).
 cable (1).
 lock the doors (1).
 turn off computer when not in use (1).
Logical prevention measures – MAX two.
e.g.
 username and password (1)/password (1).
 access rights (1).
 encryption (1).
 secure backups (1).
 firewall (1).
 anti-virus (1).

Answers may deal with the issues raised in the scenario OR be general issues.

(b) For one of the logical prevention measures you chose in part (a), describe how it would protect the data.

Chosen logical prevention measure

Description

Up to two marks for a valid description.
Examples of possible exemplification provided below:
access rights e.g.
 unauthorised access will be prevented (1) as a username and password will be needed to access the data (1).
 the data can only be accessed by authorised people (1) who have the correct credentials (1).
encryption e.g.
 people will only be able to read the data (1) if they have the encryption key (1).
 the data will be scrambled (1) and will not be able to be understand if stolen (1).
secure backups e.g.
 data can be restored from a secure backup (1) if the original data has been lost (1).
 secure backups of data stored away from the original data (1) will reduce the risk of damage to both at the same time (1).

Any logical prevention measure given must be reviewed on its own merits in relation to the description. If valid award marks.
Encryption
DO NOT accept “data will be unreadable” – data is scrambled, not made unreadable

14 Progress Harriers uses a database to process data about the competition results.

(a) Describe one feature of a database that could help Progress Harriers enter data into its database.

Two marks for a valid description.
e.g.
 validation (1st) checks data is of correct type/suitable (1) to reduce data entry errors (1).
 forms (1st) data entered one record at a time/use of prompts guides the user/enter data into different tables (1st).
 tables (1) organise data into groups (1).
 columns (1st) so that the same type of data is added to the same (relative) place (1).
 rows (1st) enter the data for one data subject into one organised row (1).

First mark is for identifying the feature. If no feature identified, no marks may be awarded.

(b) Describe one feature of a database that could help Progress Harriers generate useful information from its database.

Two marks for a valid description.
e.g.
 query (1st) to search data using given criteria/ find specific (or equivalent) information (1)can be saved and used again (1).
 report (1st) can be used to present information in an easy to read form/that can be printed out (1).
 print (1st) to generate a hard copy (1).

First mark is for identifying the feature.
If no feature identified, no marks may be awarded.
DO NOT accept “to find information” as an extension for query. This must be a query to find specific or a type of information.
Equivalent to specific can be quite loose – accept “extract data according to the user’s request”, for example.

(c) Explain two reasons why Progress Harriers would use a database rather than a spreadsheet to record event results, club event records and the contact details of each competitor.

1

2

Three marks for each valid explanation - MAX three per explanation.
Reason (1).
Explanation of reason (2).
e.g.
 Relational database (1) reduces data redundancy (1) smaller file size/less chance of data entry error (1).
 Databases use multiple tables (1) linked by relationships (1) to create complex queries (1).
 Database input forms (1) and a switchboard (1) can be used to simplify the user interface (1).
 Progress Harriers only record data (1)so they will not need to perform calculations (1), produce charts/ use complex functions (1).

Accept converse answers about spreadsheets (spreadsheets DO NOT have ….)
DO NOT accept answers that suggest that only databases can use queries or that the reason is simply due to queries.
DO NOT accept answers to do with ease or speed of set up.

15 When a club record is broken at a competition, a ‘Club Record Certificate’ is produced. The competitor name, event name and date from the database are merged into a Desk Top Publishing (DTP) certificate template.

(a) What presentation method is this?

 integrated document (1).

Also known as "mail merge".

(b) Explain two advantages for Progress Harriers of using this method to create certificates.

1

2

Two marks for each valid explanation - MAX two per explanation.
Identification of advantage (1).
How this is an advantage/what caused it (1).
e.g.
 reduced data entry errors/data for competitors is reliable (1) as using the information directly from the database (1).
 it will take less time (1) as this process can be automated (1) / the document can be reused (1).
 (source) data can easily be changed (1) if there is an error (1).
 once set up it can be used by less skilled workers (1) without the need for training (1) / they can produce a document beyond their skills level (1).
 template can be populated with data from the database (1) which is more efficient (1).
 the use of templates gives a consistent layout (1) because the fields are pre-positioned (1).

This answer is NOT dependant on Q15a.
Accept answers relating to both mail merge or use of template.

A large, international charity collects data relating to its 500 000 donors (those who give money to charity). The data includes donor names, contact details and if the donor pays on a monthly basis. The charity promotes the use of Green energy including the use of energy efficient home appliances such as TVs and lighting. Donors are encouraged to install solar panels on the roofs of their homes. The charity collects data on the public’s opinion of the charity using the following:

  • surveys through the charity website;
  • sending questionnaires by email and/or through the post;
  • social media;
  • external sources such as market research conducted on the street by other companies.

Market research is carried out on a weekly basis using surveys and questionnaires. The data from this market research is shared with other fundraisers. The data from the surveys and questionnaires is processed at the charity’s head office and then stored on local servers. The charity uses the website to advertise the charity work it carries out and to sell branded clothing and gifts. The charity has asked an IT security company to review the IT systems it has in place to identify the impact and consequences of potential cyber-security attacks.

16 The market researchers show presentations of the charity’s work to the people they talk to on the street. Potential donors are then asked to fill in an online questionnaire.

(a) (i) Identify a suitable hardware device that could be used to complete the online questionnaire.

One mark for a suitable device. e.g.
 tablet (1).
 notebook (1).
 smartphone (1).
 touchscreen (1).
 laptop (1).
 keyboard (1).

Input devices, IN CONTEXT as well as general devices are acceptable.
Discussion – where do people fill in the online questionnaire?
The device must be suitable for use in the street.
Do not accept “phone” (mark as TV).
Do not accept “mobile device/phone”.
Do not accept “mouse”.

The data from each completed questionnaire is automatically sent to the charity’s head office.

(ii) Identify a suitable connectivity requirement for the hardware device you chose in part (a)(i).

One mark for a suitable connectivity requirement.
 mobile data (1).
 WI-FI (1).
 3G data (1).
 4G data (1).
 (mobile) broadband (1).
 NIC (1).

(b) Explain one implication to the charity of having bias in the questionnaire.

Three marks for valid explanation.
Implication (1).
Explanation (2).
e.g.
 the charity could collect inaccurate data (1) as the questions could be ambiguous (1), leading to poor choices being made (1).
 the charity could lose income (1) because data collected will be invalid (1) leading to poor marketing decisions (1) and the charity targeting the wrong potential donors (1).
 the reputation may be damaged (1) which will results in financial loss (1) as donors will stop making donations (1).

Answers may be more generic here and not necessarily based on the charity.

17 The charity has a database containing the details of its donors.

(a) Identify two data types that could be used to store this information.

1

2

Two from.
 text (1).
 alphanumeric (1).
 numeric (1).
 currency (1).
 date/time (1).
 limited choice (1).
 object (1).
 logical/Boolean/true-false/yes-no (1).

DO NOT accept “number”.

(b) For one of the data types you chose in part (a), justify your choice.

Chosen data type

Justification

Up to TWO marks for a full justification
Examples of possible exemplification provided below:
Two marks for justification in relation to text:
e.g.
 the data stored will include first names (1) which only contain text (1).
 the address details will include the town (1) comprised of letters only (1).

Any chosen data type given must be reviewed on its own merits in relation to the justification. If valid award marks.
Acceptable answers will typically be of the form of stating that the data stored includes the specific data type, followed by why that data type is therefore appropriate.

Two marks for justification in relation to alphanumeric:
e.g.
 telephone numbers will be stored (1), these have a leading zero which alphanumeric will allow (1).
 post codes will be stored (1), these contain numbers and letters (1).

Two marks for justification in relation to logical/Boolean:
e.g.
 the database includes Yes/No data for ‘monthly basis’ (1), this is best stored as a Boolean (1).
 a logical data type is best for True/False data (1), such as ‘wants direct marketing’ (1).

Two marks for justification in relation to limited choice:
e.g.
 the database will include the title of each donor (1), so a drop down list for Mrs, Ms, Mr etc. will be easy to use (1).
 the address of each donor will include the county (1), input errors will be reduced if a drop down list of counties is used (1).

Two marks for justification in relation to date:
e.g.
 the date of birth of each donor will be stored (1) so will need to be stored as a date format to allow queries (1).
 the date of donations will be stored (1), this data will only contain date information (1).

Two marks for justification in relation to numeric:
e.g.
 the value of each donation will be stored (1), this will be a number of pounds (1).
 the age of each will be stored (1), this will be a number of years and months (1).

18 The charity collects data about its 500 000 donors. Discuss the different ways in which the charity could use this data.

Indicative Content:
 The charity could use names and addresses of donors to send out integrated documents appealing for donations, but it must check that these details are up to date to reduce errors and to maximise donations.
 The charity could use a spreadsheet to look for trends in the data to identify which donors are likely to give money again, helping to target marketing more accurately and increase donations.
 Postcodes could be used to look for patterns in the home location of donors and to identify hot spots and cold spots. Action can then be taken to increase donations in cold spots.
 Database queries could be used to identify donors who pay on a monthly basis; these donors could be contacted by email, asking them to increase their monthly donation. Similarly, donors that do not make a donation every month could be asked to do so.
 Answer MUST be about how data be put to use, not stored or managed.

Mark Band 3: (7-10 marks)
Candidate explains the different ways in which the charity could use this data. Answer will be given in context.
At the bottom of the mark band more than one way has been explained, each in fair depth.
Mark Band 2: (4-6 marks)
Candidate describes the different ways in which the charity could use this data. Answer may not be given in context.
At the top of the mark band more than one way has been described.
At the bottom of the mark band weak description of one way.
Mark Band 1: (1-3 marks)
Candidate identifies generic points in relation to the way data could be used.
At the top of the mark band more than one way identified.
At the bottom of the mark band any point made.
0 marks
No answer given or answer not worthy of credit.

 

19 State two types of environmental vulnerabilities that could affect the stored data.

1

2

Two marks for suitable environmental vulnerabilities.
e.g.
 flooding (1).
 fire (1).
 lightning strike (1).
 storm (1).
 natural disaster (1).

20 Explain the financial disruption that may occur to the charity after a cyber-security attack.

Three marks for valid explanation.
Identification of financial implication (MAX 2).
Explanation of why this implication occurred (MAX 2).
e.g.
 Money could be lost/stolen (1) as the target of the attack was the charities funds/information to get to the funds (1) so access data/passwords have been targeted (1).
 The charity might have to spend money to investigate the cyber-security attack (1), recover from the attack (1) and improve data security (1).
 The charity might lose income, (1) due to loss of donations (1) from donors who do not trust the charity (1) because their personal data has been stolen (1).

DO NOT accept indirect implications, such as ransom requests or DPA implications, etc.

21 The charity collects data on the use of solar panels by its donors with their permission. A Green energy supplier has asked the charity to share this data with them.
Explain two reasons why the charity should say ‘No’ to this request.

1

2

Three marks for each valid explanation - MAX three per explanation.
Reason (1).
Explanation of reason (2). e.g.
 The data on the use of solar panels could contain personal data (1) and must not be shared without the permission of the donors (1), as this would be illegal under the legislation (1).
 This data might allow individual donors to be identified (1) so it is personal data (1) and covered by the relevant legislation (1) so the charity will need donors permission to share it (1).
 The data was given to the charity not the other company (1). So, if the information is given out they could be sued (1) as it is against legal requirements (1).

Acceptable answers may not be presented in the same order as here, or may be partial. For example “DPA states that data should only be used for the stated purpose (1) may be awarded a mark.

 

Total 80.

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